Alopecia is a lack of hair on all or part of the scalp. The term comes from alopex (Fox), the animal loses its hair annually. There are different forms of alopecia:
- Diffuse alopecia (most common), acute or progressive;
- Congenital alopecia, very rare;
- Circumscribed alopecia (patchy), due to alopecia areata or tinea, and presents mainly in children.
Hair loss can be either sudden or gradual
- Alopecia progressive - diffuse and chronic - is home seborrheic.This is typically androgenic alopecia of the man who grows older. It appears about 20 years. Plus it starts early, the more it will be important. It is also possible in women after menopause. Other causes can be searched: alopecia areata, syphilis, endocrine disorders, metabolic disorders (anemia, weight loss diet ...), trichotillomania (tic consisting of hair pulling by twisting a finger), brushing, permanent ... Finally, some drugs may be implicated.
- The brutal alopecia are sharp and appear in a state of fatigue or in response to aggression, stress, infections, fever (leptospirosis, typhoid ...) operation, pregnancy, childbirth, general anesthesia, radiotherapy, chemotherapy.
In humans, alopecia at the temples first attacked later extended to the top of the skull. In women, it is localized only at the top of the skull. The stage and degree of baldness are valued evolutionary classification Bouhanna in men and in women Ludwig, each with three stages.
Nothing, except try to avoid, wherever possible, the conditions favoring alopecia brutal described above (fatigue, aggression, stress ...).
Before declaring that hair loss is abnormal, experts realize the scalp several tests:
- The tensile test, manual, is easiest but allows only a rough estimate;
- The Trichogramma, performed under the microscope can refine the diagnosis;
- The tractiophototrichogramme, macrophotographic examination confirms the disease accurately.
The sudden and acute alopecia recover spontaneously (except that due to localized radiation to the skull, which is final).
Current treatments, whether medical or surgical, have made significant progress.
1) Medical treatment
- If the fall is mild, treatment is based on Vitamin H (Biotin or) orally or by injection, together with pantothenic acid (or Bepanthen or D-panthenol) and sulfur derivatives. Local care maintenance follow two courses per year. Hair loss is delayed or stopped, but there is no regrowth in humans.
- If the fall is important, but without significant baldness, minoxidil lotion, 2% gerbiol regrowth cosmetically good results in 30% of patients, male or female. This treatment must be applied to life and remains cons-indicated in cases of cardiovascular problems and pregnancy. In women, hormone therapy is also possible, under strict supervision.
- In case of baldness, the surgery is the only alternative to wigs and other head coverings.
2) Surgical treatment
Surgical techniques evenly distributed persistent hair on bald or sparse regions. They are numerous and sophisticated: micro and minigrafts, simple flaps, flap Scalp reduction and expanded - the latter appearing to be the best. Under local anesthesia, most are male or female pattern baldness and a final aesthetic correction.The shampoo is allowed immediately after the intervention (without rubbing, because of the sutures).
The artificial hair implants do more practice.
3) bonded prosthesis
This is the solution for patients who wish to avoid surgery. The wig must be refixée every two months and changed every two years.
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